I.  Fostering Emotional Catharsis: requires patient, attentive,  nonjudgmental attitude and catalytic setting:

                   A. Client-Centered Counseling

                   B. Relationship Therapy

                            1. for young and middle aged adults

 II. Offering Hope and Assurance: comfort and inspiration

                   A. Pastoral Counseling

                   B. Bibliotherapy

                            1. for all ages beyond infancy

 III. Furnishing Information: didactic

                   A. Career or Vocational Counseling

                            1. for mid-adolescence and beyond

                   B. Educational Guidance
                            1. for age 25 and beyond

                   C. Genetic Counseling

                            1. for young and middle adulthood up to 45

 IV. Altering Reciprocal Relationships: working with groups

                   A. Marriage and Family Therapy

                            1. for mixed ages

                   B. Organizational Counseling

                            1. new workers (20-25) and retirees (65-70)

                   C. Team Counseling (sports counseling)

                            1. mid-adolescence to 40

 V. Constructively Living the Past: emotional baggage

                   A. Psychoanalysis

                            1. for young and middle aged adults

                   B. Play Therapy

                            1. for young children

 VI. Rearranging Consequences to Produce New Habits: Behavioral

                   A. Behavior Therapy

                            1. for all age periods

 VII. Confronting and Analyzing Reality: cognitive

                   A. Rational-Emotive Therapy

                            1. all ages beyond early childhood
                   B. Reality Therapy

                            1. for elementary school children to old age

 VIII. Focusing on Being and on Creating Goals:  existential - meaning & purpose

                  A. Frankl’s Logotherapy (finding meaning even in adversity, values clarification, identifying a mission)

                            1. for adolescence through old age

                   B. Perls’ Gestalt Therapy (focus on current being,  responsibility for own choices

                            1. for mid-adolescence through old age

                   C. May’s Existential Psychotherapy (confront normal anxiety and defenses through self-investigation, self-understanding)

 IX.  Addressing Make-Believe Situations

                   A. Play Therapy (catharsis and reality testing)

                            1. for ages 2-9

                   B. Case Discussions (problem solving and generalization to client’s issues)

                            1. for age 3 to end of life span

                   C. Psychodrama, Sociodrama, Theater of the Oppressed (catharsis, empowerment, courage and conflict resolution skills, e.g.
                                                                                                                    empty chair)

                            1. for middle childhood to old age

 X. Altering Body Chemistry: psychotropic drugs, e.g. Prozac, Ritalin, Valium

                            1. for entire life span

 XI. Enlightened Eclecticism: different techniques with different clients, different techniques at different ages

                            1. for entire life span

    from Thomas, R.M. (1990). Counseling and life span development. Newbury Park, CA" Sage