Human Anatomy and Physiology II

Exam 1, Version 2 - March 23, 1994

Dr. Chabot


Multiple Choice (@2 points): Circle the letter of the one best answer. GOOD LUCK!

Answer only 30 out of 33! The first 30 answered will be graded.


1. Which of the following lists the parts of a reflex arc in the correct sequence?

A. receptor, sensory neuron, motor neuron, interneuron, effector

B. effector, receptor, sensory neuron, motor neuron, interneuron

C. effector, sensory neuron, receptor, interneuron, motor neuron

D. receptor, sensory neuron, interneuron, motor neuron, effector


2. The cerebellum has

A. motor output but no sensory input

B. motor output and sensory input

C. no motor output but it does have sensory input

D. neither motor output or sensory input


3. The parasympathetic nervous system is involved with

A. the maintenance of homeostasis

B. "fight or flight" reactions

C. the same activities as is the sympathetic nervous system

D. none of the above



4. When considering motor movements, the association cortex has direct input into the

A. caudate

B. putamen

C. spinal cord

D. medial cerebellum


5. Blushing or fainting can occur because the autonomic nervous system can be affected by the

A. hypothalamus

B. medulla oblongata

C. limbic system

D. none of the above


6. The _______ is the part of the eye that contains the photoreceptors.

A. pupil

B. lens

C. iris

D. retina


7. When the flexor muscles of one arm are stimulated to contract in a withdrawal reflex, the extensor muscles of the other are caused to contract. This phenomenon is called

A. flexor extensor reflex

B. ipsilateral reflex

C. crossed extensor reflex

D. crossed flexor reflex


8. If a resting potential becomes more negative, the membrane is said to be

A. depolarizing

B. hyperpolarizing

C. repolarizing

D. summating


9. Golgi tendon organs are involved in

A. the crossed extensor reflex

B. the patellar reflex

C. the vestibular nucleus

D. withdrawel reflexes


10. We can tell if one sound is louder than another because

A. a difference in the frequency of action potentials in the auditory nerve

B. of the properties of the superior olivary nucleus

C. of the part of the cochlea that the specific hair receptors are found

D. the bones in the ear


11. The nervous system

A. detects changes in the internal or external environment

B. controls the movement of muscles and secretions of glands

C. integrates information from several sources and uses it to make an appropriate response

D. all of these


12. Insulin causes

A. a decrease in the concentration of blood glucose

B. a decrease in the permeability of cell membranes to glucose

C. an increase in the production of glucose from glycogen

D. none of these


13. If the area of the cerebral hemisphere corresponding to the hippocampus is damaged, what is the result?

A. Memory is lost.

B. Motor control to the right leg is impaired.

C. Eyesight is lost.

D. Motor control of the muscles associated with speech is lost.



14. Transduction occurs in receptors by

A. neurotransmitters

B. decreasing permeability of nerve membranes

C. changes in membrane permeability or conductance

D. changes in action potentials


15. The trigeminal nerve carries sensory information regarding

A. vision

B. eyes, scalp, teeth

C. pharynx

D. tongue


16. The basal ganglia include which of the following?

A. the putamen

B. the globus pallidus

C. the caudate nucleus

D. all of these


17. What is the function of cerebral association areas?

A. to analyze and interpret sensory experiences

B. memory

C. reasoning and judgment

D. all of these


18. Parkinson's disease, which is characterized by slow movements and difficulty initiating voluntary muscular actions, results from a disorder in the

A. frontal lobe

B. parietal lobe

C. basal ganglia

D. ventricles


19. Rhodopsin is found in

A. cone cells

B. hair cells

C. rod cells

D. olfactory receptor cells


20. Which of the following cranial nerves carries sensory information concerning hearing and equilibrium?

A. Cranial nerve VI

B. Cranial nerve VII

C. Cranial nerve VIII

D. Cranial nerve IX


21. The range of human hearing is about

A. 2,000-3,000 Hz

B. 2,000-200,000 Hz

C. 20-20,000 Hz

D. 2-2,000 Hz


22. All hormones are

A. steroids

B. proteins

C. inorganic compounds

D. organic compounds


23. Which of the following is not a function of the hypothalamus?

A. regulation of body temperature

B. control of hunger

C. production of hormones

D. control of postural reflexes


24. Steroid hormones

A. are soluble in lipids

B. combine with protein receptor molecules

C. act by causing the synthesis of messenger RNA molecules

D. all of these


25. Lateral inhibition, a type of sensory processing which occurs in the retina functions to provide a mechanism for

A. accomadation

B. adaptation

C. the enhancement of edge contrast

D. none of the above


26. As a rule, hormone concentrations are controlled by

A. positive feedback mechanisms

B. negative feedback mechanisms

C. thermostats

D. cellular demands


27. The part of the brain that is involved in initiating movements is the

A. motor cortex

B. putamen

C. medial cerebellum

D. lateral cerebellum


28. The autonomic nervous system functions

A. only under stressful conditions

B. under the direct control of the motor cortex

C. independently of association cortices and continously

D. none of the above


29. If, as a baseball player, you are unable to "screen out" (i.e. focus) unwanted thoughts or stimuli when you are batting, you are unable to screen out input from the

A. basal ganglia

B. motor cortex

C. limbic system

D. cerebellum


30. When the sympathetic nervous system is stimulated

A. heart rate increase and pupil diameter decreases

B. heart rate decreases and pupil diameter decreases

C. heart rate increases and pupil diameter increases

D. heart rate decreases and pupil diameter increases


31. A person with an abnormally high metabolic rate, who is underweight, and has protruding eyes is exhibiting symptoms of

A. an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism)

B. an overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism)

C. hypoparathyroidism

D. hyperparathyroidism


32. Reflexes help to control

A. heart rate

B. blood pressure

C. digestive activities

D. all of these


33. A hormone is defined as a __________ and the target cell is defined as __________.

A. protein substance that stimulates other cells; the source of hormone secretions

B. regulatory substance that controls secretions of other cells; a cell that synthesizes hormones

C. substance that has a metabolic effect on another cell; a cell that possesses specific receptors for hormone molecules

D. none of these



FILL-INS (@2 points):

Complete the following sentences with the most appropriate (one) word.

Choose 10 out of 12 only.


1. Body parts, such as muscles and glands, that are capable of responding to nerve impulses are called _____________.


2. The adjustment of the thickness of the lens to make close vision possible is called _____________.


3. A _____________ ________ ___ acts on a target cell by causing a second messenger to be formed.


FILL-INS (continued; @2 points):


4. Cranial nerve III, the __________________ nerve carries motor impulses to some of the muscles that move the eye.


5. The ___________________ nucleus is the biological clock in humans.


6. The planning stage of initiating a motor movement takes place in the _______________ cortex.


7. ____________________ is a sense that arises from sensory structures in tendons and muscles and is very important for sensory feedback while moving.


8. The __________________ division of the autonomic nervous system functions mainly to prepare the body for energy-expending, stressful situations.


9. The transparent, anterior and outermost portion of the eye's outer covering is called the __________.


10. Hormones after they exert their effect, are usually broken down by the _______________ (any of 3 possible answers).


11. The hormone which is produced by extra-follicular cells in the thyroid and functions to regulate blood Ca++ levels is called ___________________.


12. The hypothalamus and the ________________ gland work together as part of the endocrine system.



Essay/Short Answer (@ 10 pts). Answer only 2 of the following 3. The first 2 answered will be graded.


1) In a diagrammatic form, outline the parts of the brain that are involved in the control of motor movements. Be sure to include arrows to indicate inputs and outputs to/from these structures. Also include the functions of at least four of the structures


















2) Provide a diagram outlining the control of blood glucose levels between meals. Be sure to include details of the process (the names of tissues, cells, etc)


























3) Draw and label a diagram of the eye. Be sure to include the functions of at least four of the structures taht you have named.