Human Anatomy and Physiology I

Exam 4, Version 10, Dr. Chabot November 15, 2000

Multiple Choice (@3 points): circle letter of the one best answer. Answer only 27 out of 30! The first 27 answered will be graded. Mark an "X" beside those that you do not want graded. GOOD LUCK!

1. A needle would pierce the epidermal layers of the forearm in which order?

            A. Basale, spinosum, granulosum, corneum

            B.  Basale, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum, corneum

            C.  Granulosum. Basale. Spinosum, corneum

            D.  Corneum, granulosum, spinosum. Basale

2. The dermis:

            A.  Is a nonvascular connective tissue layer.

            B.  Has two distinct layers.

            C.  Lack sensory structure and glands.

            D.  Is where melanocytes are found

3. Melanocytes:

            A. are spidery-shaped cells in contact with cells in the stratum basale.

            B. are involved in the immune system.

            C. are involved with the nervous system.

            D. work their way up to the surface area just like the keratinocytes.

4. Nutrients reach the surface of the skin (epidermis) through the process of:

            A. absorbing materials applied to the surface layer of the skin.

            B. utilizing the products of merocrine glands to nourish the epidermis.

            C. filtration.

            D. diffusing through the tissue fluid from blood vessels in the dermis.

5. The epidermis is responsible for protecting the body against invasion of bacteria and other foreign agents primarily because it is composed of:

            A. stratified columnar epithelium

            B. three layers of keratinized cells only

            C. four different cell shapes found in five distinct layers, each cell shape with special function

            D. a tough layer of connective tissue

6. Melanocytes and keratinocytes work together in protecting the skin from UV damage because the role of the keratinocytes is to:

A. provide the melanocytes with a protective shield against abrasion

B. accumulate melanin granules on their superficial portion, forming a screen that protects DNA from UV

C. maintain the appropriate pH in order for the melanocytes to synthesize melanin granules

D. maintain the appropriate temperatures so the product of the melanocytes will not denature.

7. The integumentary system is protected by our immune system through the action of cells that arise from bone marrow and migrate to the epidermis. Which of the following cells serve this immune function?

            A. cells found in the stratum spinosum

            B. macrophages

            C. keratinocytes, because they are so versatile

            D. fibroblasts

8. The dermis is a strong, flexible connective tissue layer. Which of the following cell types are likely to be found in the dermis?

            A. goblet cells, parietal cells, and Kupffer cells

            B. monocytes, reticulocytes, and osteocytes

            C. fibroblasts, macrophages, and mast cells

            D. osteoblasts, osteocytes, and epithelial cells

9. The dermis has two major layers; which of the following constitutes 80% of the dermis and is responsible for the tension lines in the skin?

            A. the reticular layer

            B. the subcutaneous layer

            C. the hypodermal layer

            D. the papillary layer

10. Which of the following statements indicates the way in which the body's natural defenses protect the skin from the effects of UV damage?

            A. The skin is protected by the synthesis of three pigments that contribute to the skin's color.

B. Carotene, which accumulates in the stratum corneum and hypodermal adipose tissue, is synthesized in large amounts in the presence of sunlight.

C. The skin is protected by increasing the number of Langerhans cells, which help to activate the immune system.

            D. Prolonged exposure to the sun induces melanin production and dispersion, which in turn acts as a natural sunscreen.

11. Which of the following statements best describes what fingernails actually are?

            A. Fingernails are a modification of the epidermis.

            B. Fingernails are derived from osseous tissue.

            C. Fingernails are extensions of the carpal bones.

            D. Fingernails are a separate tissue from the skin, formed from a different embryonic layer.

12. Sudoriferous (sweat) glands are categorized as two distinct types. Which of the following are the two types of sweat glands?

            A. sebaceous and merocrine

            B. mammary and ceruminous

            C. eccrine and apocrine

            D. holocrine and mammary

13. The composition of the secretions of the eccrine glands is:

            A. primarily uric acid.

            B. 99% water, sodium chloride, and trace amounts of wastes, lactic acid, and vitamin C.

            C. fatty substances, proteins, antibodies, and trace amounts of minerals and vitamins.

            D. the major portion of the materials secreted by the eccrine glands is metabolic wastes.

14. Apocrine glands, which begin to function at puberty under hormonal influence, seem not to be useful in thermoregulation. Where would we find these glands in the human body?

            A. in all body regions and buried deep in the dermis

            B. beneath the flexure lines in the body

            C. in the axillary and anogenital area

            D. in the palms of the hands and soles of the feet

15. In addition to protection (physical and chemical barrier), the skin serves other functions. Which of the following is another vital function of the skin?

            A. It converts modified epidermal cholesterol to a vitamin D precursor necessary in calcium metabolism.

            B. It aids in the transport of material throughout the body.

            C. The cells of the epidermis store glucose as glycogen for energy.

            D. It absorbs vitamin C so that the skin will not be subject to diseases.

16. Yellow bone marrow contains a large percentage of:

            A. fat

            B. blood-forming cells

            C. elastic tissue

            D. Sharpey's fibers

17. The cell responsible for secreting the matrix of bone is the:

            A. osteocytes

            B. osteoblasts

            C. osteoclast

            D. chondrocyte

18. What kind of tissue is the forerunner of long bones in the embryo?

            A. elastic connective tissue

            B. dense fibrous connective tissue

            C. fibrocartilage

            D. hyaline cartilage

19. In bone formation, a deficiency of growth hormone will cause:

            A. inadequate calcification of bone.

            B. decreased osteoclast activity.

            C. decreased proliferation of the epiphyseal plate cartilage

            D. increased osteoclast activity.

20. A fracture in the shaft of a bone would be a break in the:

            A. epiphysis

            B. metaphysis

            C. diaphysis

            D. articular cartilage

21. Which of the following is (are) not the function (s) of the skeletal system?

            A. support

            B. storage of minerals

            C. production of blood cells (hematopoieses)

            D. strength

22. The canal that runs through the core of each osteon (the Haversian canal) is the site             of:

            A. cartilage and interstitial lamellae.

            B. osteoclast and osteoblasts

            C. yellow marrow and spicules.

            D. blood vessels and verve fibers

23. For intramembranous ossification to take place, which of the following is necessary?

            A. A bone collar forms around the cartilage model

            B. An ossification center forms in the fibrous connective tissue

            C. The cartilage matrix begins to deteriorate

            D. A medullary cavity forms

24. Bones are constantly undergoing resorption of various reasons. Which of the following cells accomplishes this process?

            A. osteoclast

            B. osteocytes

            C. chondrocyte

            D. stem cell


25. Wolff's law is concerned with:

            A. vertical growth of bones being dependent on age

            B. the thickness and shape of a bone being dependent on stresses placed upon it.

            C. the function of bone being dependent on shape

            D. the diameter of the bone being dependent on the ratio of osteoblasts to osteoclasts

26. Which of the following glands or organs produces hormones that tend to decrease blood calcium levels?

            A. pineal gland

            B. thyroid

            C. parathyroid

            D. spleen

27. Spongy bones are made up of a framework called:

            A. osteons

            B. lamellar bone

            C. trabeculae

            D. osseous lamellae

28. Growth of bones is controlled by a symphony of hormones. Which hormone is important for bone growth during infancy and childhood?

            A. thyroid hormone

            B. somatomedins

            C. growth hormone

            D. prolactin

29. In some cases the metaphyses of the long bones of youngsters closes too early. What might be the cause?

            A. overproduction of thyroid hormone

            B. elevated levels of sex hormones

            C. too much vitamin D in the diet

            D. osteoblast activity exceeds osteoclast activity

30.    The functional unit of compact bone is:

A.        osseous matrix

B.         spongy bone

C.         lamellar bone

D.        the osteon