Biology 211,  Fall, 2002

Dr. Christopher Chabot, Bradford 10, phone - extension 2864, chrisc@mail



Human Anatomy and Physiology (5th Edition), 2000; Elaine N. Marieb, includes 7 Interactive Physiology CD-ROMs plus a Study Partner CD ROM, Benjamin Cummings Publisher.



Atlas of the Skeletal Muscles, Third Edition, 2000; Stone and Stone (WC Brown, Publishers).



This course will provide an introduction to the human body, its component parts and how they function.  We will strive, as a class, to appreciate how structure (anatomy) and function (physiology) work together to produce an incredible, dynamic body.  I hope that the background you develop during this course will give you a better understanding and appreciation of the variety and complexity of the human body, and will enable you to make informed decisions on current and future human health issues. There will be numerous handouts throughout the semester. Because of this I strongly suggest that you purchase a 1.5" three ring binder to hold your notes and the handouts. This will enable you to place your handouts in areas of supporting notes and to ensure that you do not lose them.

We will begin the course with a brief exploration of cellular A&P and then learn how groups of cells function together as tissues.  We will then discuss the organization of the outer covering of the body, the skin and integument.  For the rest of the semester we will be studying the skeleto-muscular system and, if we have time, its control by the nervous system.  As we explore these different areas, keep in mind that these different tissues and structures are part of systems and that these systems interact.  Ask yourself, after every lecture, the following questions: 

1)  How do the structures/compounds that I learned about today work (i.e. - what is their function)?,

2)  How do they interact with the structures that I learned previously?, and

3)  How does the system that we are currently studying interact with other systems?

Questions 2 and 3 will become more and more important as the semester progresses and we learn about more systems.

This is a General Education Course:

The following list is from the PSC "Gen Ed" handbook and PSC faculty and students have agreed that these are important components for a Gen Ed course.  Gen Ed courses should:

• Strike a balance between the content of a discipline and its methodology (lectures).

• Encourage the development of language skills, especially those which aid students in becoming adept at critical reading, clear speaking, and careful listening.  Gen Ed courses should require students to utilize quantitative, computer, and library skills regardless of discipline.  To remain consonant with the Writing Across the Curriculum movement, general education courses should also contain a significant writing component (papers and lectures).

• Present students with instances where problem-solving skills are used.  Courses should help students develop skills of both analysis and synthesis (lectures, exams, and papers).

• Provide students with a respect for and desire for excellence in performance and achievement.  Learning experiences which enable students to grow through the practices of looking, exploring, problem-solving, production or performance will familiarize students with the means to seek, promote, and achieve excellence in later undertakings (all aspects of course and also lab component).

• Attempt to establish a historical context for ideas (lectures).

• Help students integrate material across a discipline.  Moreover, faculty should strive to make connections and help students see integration across disciplines.

• Strive to develop skills and confidence to make students independent learners.  A general education provides students with the disposition for life-long learning (outside reading).

• Promote the realization that knowledge in academic disciplines is not fixed, but ever changing.

• Foster an awareness of cultural diversity and gender issues.


This is specifically a Scientific/Scientific Laboratory Gen Ed Course:

The spirit of science includes these items:

• Longing to know and understand; enthusiasm

• Questioning of all things; thinking critically

• Search for data and their meaning; papers, book, lectures

• Demand for verification; checking sources

• Respect for logic; critical thinking

• Consideration of premises and consequences; hypotheses and theories


This is also a Pilot Course for a potential New Gen Ed Program:


Inquiry <--> Discovery

We can attain a clearer understanding of the world by learning how we arrive at such an understanding.


• This course will focus on those ways of knowing that use scientific methodologies. 

Observation, hypothesis testing, experimentation, application of technology, statistical methodologies will all be discussed in both lectures and labs.  These processes will be implemented in labs.

• There will be multiple opportunities for students to partake in the process of inquiry and discovery, or what is classically known as the scientific method. 

There will be three opportunities in the lab. Students will be introduced to topics and equipment by performing a short directed inquiry-based experiment.  They will then be asked to design an experiment of their own, carry it out, analyze it using statistics, and then present their data/interpretations either orally or in a written format.

• Emphasis will be placed on the fact that the road toward understanding is uneven, and proceeds by fits and starts. 

This will be primarily in the lecture portion of the course.  Current examples will be used. Students will gather some of this info via their research writing assignments. Recent examples from the media that can be used are: 1) Hormone Replacement Therapy or not? (Millions of women have been placed on estrogen supplements in order to "replace" the decreased levels of this hormone as they age.  This has been previously though to be beneficial for women in a number of ways (decreased bone loss, decreased cardiovascular problems, decreased cancer risks). This recommendation was based on a few studies involving limited numbers of women.  A recent very large study has actually "shown" that HRT can increase the risk of certain types of cancers and does not seem to be protective of the cardiovascular system. We will take a careful look at the factors that lead to these conflicting recommendations. A similar approach will be taken in examining the following issues:  2) Calcium supplements or not? 3) Anabolic steroids or not? 4) Low/hi carb/fats/protein diets - do they work? 4) there will probably be 8-10 other areas that you will bring up in class and we will discuss at length.

• Social, cultural, and political contexts will be provided, and ethical considerations will be thoroughly considered.

 This will be primarily in the lecture portion of the course.  Again from recent mass media: 1) Food "Supplements" (Are the claims made for a wide variety of food supplements such as St. John's wort true? Is this type of advertising legal? Ethical? What kinds of laws govern this type of food product? Are" herbs" more culturally/politically acceptable than "drugs"? Is there a difference?); 2) Alcohol/drug use; 3) Steroid use; 4) Blood doping; 5) Antibiotic (Over)use.

• This course will show that science has real applications for your own life, and will help you to make sense of the explosion of information that you encounter every day.

See previous two bullets; For example steroid use: "You are on the football team here at PSC and are trying to sort through the maze of information about steroids. The team physician and trainers say 'Stay away from them' but some of your teammates say those warnings are just scare tactics, and that everyone takes them.  Where do you turn to for unbiased information?  Does it exist? How do you evaluate it?" Other examples will include aerobic/anaerobic workouts benefits; diets; surgical choices and efficacies, etc.

• Use of and facility with scientific methods in laboratory or field settings will be an integral part of this course. 

This will occur primarily in the lab portion although many focused lecture discussions will address the scientific processes used (hypothesis testing, etc.) as well as specific scientific techniques (e.g. - biochemical testing) needed to perform different procedures and/or gather information.

• This course is designed so that you will:

1) plan investigations;

2) collect, analyze, and interpret data;

3) develop your ability to propose answers, offer explanations, and make predictions,

The above will be developed primarily in the lab although there will be many "thought' experiments that I will ask the students to design throughout the semester.

4) learn about both the power and the limitations of the scientific method.  

5) investigate the distinctions between rational thinking and anecdotal argumentation and

6) develop an understanding that answers are never final, but always subject to revision.

We will have much more opportunity to discuss these issues in lecture but these issues will be addressed at least a few times in lab.


Skills emphasized:

You will have multiple opportunities to develop your skills of:

1) critical thinking, (multiple opportunities every day)

2) reading of scientific reports, (primarily in class)

3) technical writing for purposes of scientific communication, (email assignments)

4) verbally presenting scientific material (primarily in lab) and careful listening to discussions to allow comprehension of the material

5) conducting research. (primarily in lab)

6) quantitative reasoning, qualitative assessment, and the analysis of data through statistical methods. (primarily in lab)

7) the relationship between technology and science will also be closely examined. (This is absolutely inherent in the course - both lecture and lab; there will not be a day that we do not discuss some sort of technology, its use and perhaps its potential for misuse)


Exams will be based solely on classroom lectures.  Generally, you should use the textbook to clarify and supplement lecture material.  There will be four hourly exams including the final exam.  The final is not comprehensive.  All exams will contain multiple choice and/or short answer/essay questions that will test your ability to use the information that has been presented to you.  You are responsible for taking the exams as they are scheduled; make-up exams are not allowed WITHOUT A WRITTEN PHYSICIANS EXCUSE.  If an emergency prevents you from attending an exam, you must notify the instructor as promptly as possible, otherwise you will receive a grade of zero for that exam.  You must, in ALL cases notify the instructor BEFORE missing an exam or quiz.  The grades will be based roughly on the scale: ≥90% is an A, ≥ 80-89% is a B, ≥ 70-79% is a C, ≥ 60-69% is a D, < 60% is an F.


PAPER FORMAT: Visit "" for complete information. 




                        #                      @                    Total

Exams             4                      20                    80%

Papers             2                      10                    20%




There will be optional evening sessions that will allow you to examine the human skeleton and other lab materials.  Hands-on experience like this is often crucial for those of you who need visual demonstrations to really understand the spatial organization and functioning of the skeleton and its associated muscles. These sessions should be highly beneficial to those of you who would like to improve your grades and to better understand the skeleto-muscular system.  These are tentatively scheduled for W Th, 6-8 pm, Darwin I.



Attendance is mandatory on exam days and the days that papers are due.  Otherwise it is not mandatory, but is strongly encouraged.  There is virtually always a direct correlation between a students' attendance and their grade.


OFFICE HOURS:   WF 12:25-2:15 or by appointment.

Feel free to stop by - I am here to help and I enjoy talking about anatomy and physiology.  The information that we will cover is often difficult to comprehend the first time through.  I didn't understand everything the first time through and I don't expect you to.  However I do expect you to keep at it: with either my help, your peers help, or by reading the text, everyone in the class has the ability to comprehend all of the information that we will cover. Often, ACTIVE REPETITION is key. In addition there will be teaching assistants (students like yourselves who have taken the class recently) available in Boyd 217, tentatively scheduled for MT, 6-8 pm.


TOPIC                                                                                                Week of:                     READING

Intro/Overview – Homeostasis                                                            Sept. 6                         Chapt. 1

Biological Chemistry                                                                           Sept. 6                         Chapt. 2

Molecules, H2O, carbo's, proteins, lipids              

Cells and Cell Structure                                                                       Sept. 11                       Chapt. 3

Membrane - movement across

Organelles - mitochondria, ER, golgi, lysosomes, skeleton, etc.    

Cell Cycle                                                                                            Sept. 25                       "    "   "

Interphase, Mitosis

radiation effects, differentiation, regulation, cancer

EXAM 1                                                                                             Fri, Sept. 27  

Cell Metabolism                                                                                  Oct. 2                          Chapters 3,25 

Carbohydrate - glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport

DNA synthesis

Protein synthesis - genes, transcription, translation, control

Tissue Level of Organization                                                               Oct. 9                          Chapt. 4

Development - 3 layers

Epithelial - characteristics, several types

Connective - "        "          ,"          "

Skin and Integument                                                                           Oct. 16                        Chapt. 5

skin, dermis, hypodermis, glands, hair, repair                               

Skeletal System                                                                                  Oct. 23                        Chapt. 6

Bone tissue - development, growth, mature bone, homeostasis     

EXAM 2                                                                                             Fri, Oct. 25

Anatomical terms                                                                           Nov. 6                         Chapt. 7

Vertebrae, ribs, sternum                                                                                               "          "

The skull - cranial, facial, mandible                                                Nov. 8                   "          "

Pectoral girdle and upper extremities

EXAM 3                                                                                             Fri, Nov. 22

Articulations (Joints) - types                                                                                                   Chapt. 8

Movements - shoulder, elbow, wrist

Muscles - move shoulder, humerus, elbow wrist                                 Nov. 17                       Chapt. 10

Muscle Physiology                                                                             Nov. 27                       Chapt. 9


Contraction, actin/myosin, troponin/tropomyosin

Excitation, Ca++ - coupling, metabolism and O2 needs-->ATP

Fiber Types: FG, SO, FOG; Motor units, exercise

Pelvic girdle and lower extremities

Skeletal system                                                                              Dec. 8                    Chapt. 7

Articulations - hip, knee, ankle                                                       Dec. 11                  Chapt. 8

Muscles - move ",  ",      "                                                                                            Chapt. 10


Exam 4 (FINAL EXAM)  – Mon, Dec. 16, 11 am